Aubergine is the British name for brinjal and in United States, Australia and Canada, it is known by the name eggplant, because fruits of the earlier cultivars resembled eggs of goose or hen. Its numerous seeds are small, soft and edible, along with the rest of the fruit, and do not have to be removed. Besides, it requires a continuous supply of water and fertilizer according to soil quality.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'indiagardening_com-box-4','ezslot_5',109,'0','0'])); Manjri Gota, Vaishali, Pusa Kranti, Arka Sheel, Pusa Ankur, Arka Neelkanth, Pant Rituraj, T-3, Dudhia, Swarna Shree, Swarna Mani, Swarna shyamli, Swarna Pratibha, Swarna Shobha, Arka Avnish, Arka Harshitha, Kuchia, Pant Samrat. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato, chili pepper, and potato, although they are new world and the eggplant, like nightshade, is old world. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. In some parts of India, miniature cultivars, most commonly called, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 19:32. Unlike the small Thai White variety, this eggplant has some distinct attributes: It’s seedless and subtle in flavor like the Japanese varieties, but large and round like a Black Beauty or Galine. The result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). The flowers are white to purple in color, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. These varieties were developed by inserting a protein gene (Cry1Fa1) from a soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into the brinjal’s DNA. Maharashtrian Vangi Bhat recipe. A much wider range of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. [36] Eggplant flesh is smooth. [31] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. India happens to be the second-largest brinjal producing country in the world after China. [44] However the most popular eggplant dish is tortang talong, an omelette made from grilling an eggplant, dipping it into beaten eggs, and pan-frying the mixture. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is usually eaten cooked. Brinjals can help in keeping your gut healthy and improve digestion, as they are a rich source of fibers. [12] A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines. It’s rarely bitter and cooks fast, as is the case with other small Asian eggplant varieties. The new Bt brinjal variety is different from the one released in 2002, as per the ICAR and uses indigenous transgenic varieties of brinjal hybrids Janak and BSS-793. Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Like an Easter egg, this bright Indian variety measures about three inches long and two in diameter. This was used by Tournefort as a genus name in 1700, then by Linnaeus as a species name in 1753. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. From Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages. Best Plant Nursery in Imphal You Should Visit! The French name was then borrowed into British English, appearing there first in the late eighteenth century. Usually, a warm-season crop, Baingan, can grow throughout the year in Indian plains. These eggplants have a thin skin and a delicate, sweet flavor. Baingan ka bharta is a Punjabi dish that is much loved throughout the country. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. The fruit is nutrient-rich and has many health advantages. The plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to grow wild,[9] or in Africa. The white, egg-shaped varieties of the eggplant's fruits are also known as garden eggs,[22] a term first attested in 1811. It is also the 16th most highly-consumed Filipino crop. Hand pollination by shaking the flowers improves the set of the first blossoms. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. Moreover, brinjal curry has been proved to be the oldest curry in the world, which could be traced to around 4000 years ago. In a densely populated area, the growth and production of brinjal is essential to the region and is a primary source of income for poor farmers. Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). More often than not, they are yellow in... 2. Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop of sub-tropics and tropics. It remains in scientific use. Although the Indian name of Brinjal– Baingan, literally translates as something without benefits. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts. Required fields are marked *, Can You Eat Banana Leaves? Eggplant grows 40 to 150 cm (1 ft 4 in to 4 ft 11 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) broad. Out of all the types of eggplant, none stands out like the Thai eggplant, which seems different in almost every way. Larger cultivars weighing up to a kilogram (2.2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers, while smaller ones are found elsewhere. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [49].. Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. It can also aid in weight loss due to its high water content and low-calorie count. Black Beauty. [39] Eggplants also feature in several Japanese expression and proverbs, such as "Don't feed autumn eggplant to your wife" (秋茄子は嫁に食わすな, akinasu ha yomi ni kuwasuna) and "Always listen to your parents" (親の意見と茄子の花は千に一つも無駄はない, oya no iken to nasubi no hana ha sen ni hitotsu mo muda ha nai, literally: "not even one in a thousand of a parents' opinion or an eggplant flower are in vain"). In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. In India, eggplant is used in a large variety of dishes, brinjal masala fry and brinjal & mango sambar, being a few of them. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see image). We picked 10 of our favorites to share so the next time you're at the market, you'll be inspired to try whichever you may find. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. Raw eggplant can have a bitter taste, with an astringent quality, but it becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. Eggplant (US,[1] Australia,[2] New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK,[3] Ireland, Quebec, and most of mainland Western Europe) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa)[4] is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. [13] Records exist from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[14]. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine. It is known by different names like Begun (Bengali), ringna (Gujarathi), baingan ( Hindi), badane (Kannada), waangum (Kashmiri), vange ( Marathi), baigan (Oriya), Vashuthana ( Malayalam), Kathiri (Tamil), venkaya (Telugu) and Peethabhala (Sanskrit). Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. Listada de Gandia is an Italian eggplant best known for its succulent milky white skin with lavender and purple hue. 10 Types of Eggplant—and What to Do With Them Chinese Eggplant. However, statistics showed that there is a low profit to cost… In Chinese cuisine, eggplants are known as qiézi (茄子). Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. [28], The plant is also known as guinea squash in Southern American English. The less common white varieties of eggplant are also known as Easter white eggplants, garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant. Due to its texture and bulk, it is sometimes used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisines. Brinjal is one of the most common tropical vegetables grown in India. Cut it into large chunks to braise, stir-fry, saute, or pickle. "'egg-plant, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, July 2018, Unless otherwise stated, material in this section derives from. This variety commonly grows in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi,... Pusa Purple Cluster: Fruits of this variety are dark purple and shorter than those of Pusa purple large variety. and see text. Indian Eggplant – Light purple, round and tender, Indian eggplants, also known as baby eggplants, have a velvety interior and are perfect for soups, stews, and dips.. Rosa Bianca Eggplant – Heirloom variety Rosa Bianca eggplants are quick to catch the eye, Their bright purple to pink and white exteriors are plump and round. Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium. The dish has several variants, including rellenong talong which is stuffed with meat and vegetables. Top Brinjal Varieties In India | Different Types of Brinjal. Brinjal is among the most widely available and consumed vegetables in India, after potato, onion and tomato. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. brownii. It is frequently, but not always, cooked with fat. The term guinea in the name originally denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa. Different cultivars of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. [62] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. A Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft 5 in), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. The vegetable has a variety of uses in the cuisines of all Indian states. The name eggplant is usual in North American English and Australian English. Brinjal Varieties In India Pusa Purple Long: This type of brinjal is long, glossy, and purple. They are known as talong and is widely used in many stew and soup dishes, like pinakbet. The dish is characteristically served with the stalk attached. Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes. Solanum melongena is commonly called Brinjal, which is believed to have grown in wilds of southern India for the first time, almost 1500 years ago. Among 200 germplasm/variety of brinjal screened against M. incognitafor resistant reaction, eleven varieties viz. Some cultivars have a color gradient—white at the stem, to bright pink, deep purple or even black. [8] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. This skin color for these eggplants range from light purple to deep purple to almost black in color. [24], Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎). [55], The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as eggplants. Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. [42][43], Chinese yúxiāng-qiézi (fish-fragrance eggplants), Korean dureup-gaji-jeon (pan-fried eggplants and angelica tree shoots), In the Philippines, eggplants are of the long and slender purple variety. However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. It provides low amounts of essential nutrients, with only manganese having a moderate percentage (11%) of the Daily Value. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. The borer cannot digest the artificial protein, which kills it. For this reason, it should generally not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. The vegetable is slender and comes in a variety of colors including white, pink, green, lavender or purple. A Spanish dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion, and tomato. Thai Eggplant. Selection of Varieties and Their Yield per Hectare Typically used as a vegetable in cooking, it is a berry by botanical definition. [31][32], On 9 February 2010, the Environment Ministry of India imposed a moratorium on the cultivation of Bt brinjal after protests against regulatory approval of cultivated Bt brinjal in 2009, stating the moratorium would last "for as long as it is needed to establish public trust and confidence". Some other cultivars are white and longer in shape. [17] In 19th-century Egypt, insanity was said to be "more common and more violent" when the eggplant is in season in the summer.[18]. [57], The browning of eggplant flesh results from the oxidation of polyphenols, such as the most abundant phenolic compound in the fruit, chlorogenic acid.[58]. [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. esculentum (L.) Nees", "Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: Too early to draw conclusions on contamination, says expert", "Korean restaurant owner cooks from the heart Andy Starnes/Post-Gazette", "All the hallmarks of world-class cuisine", "North, South, Go Pick! It is also called aubergine (French word) in … The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. 6 Eggplant Varieties to Try. An example of it use is in the dish hasamiyaki (挟み焼き) in which slices of eggplant are grilled and filled with a meat stuffing. The modern Hindustani words descending directly from the Sanskrit name are baingan and began. Krishna: Krishna is a Fuji hybrid released in 1991 by MPKV Rahuri for Western Maharashtra. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. All Rights Reserved. [40][41], In Korean cuisine, eggplants are known as gaji (가지). The high fiber content of brinjals can also help in eliminating the bad cholesterol in the body. In Andalusia, eggplant is mostly cooked thinly sliced, deep-fried in olive oil and served hot with honey (berenjenas a la Cordobesa). Improved Varieties of Brinjal Improved Varieties: Manjari gota, Pusa purple round, Pusa purple long, Pusa purple Cluster, Pusa kranti, Pragati, Aruna, ABV-1, ABH-1. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century). We have all seen aloo patties, but did you know you can also make Brinjal Cutlets combined with other vegetables too. and Solanum melongena var. Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, capsicum, and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Imperial examination in Chinese mythology, "A Comparative Genetic Linkage Map of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Its Implications for Genome Evolution in the Solanaceae", "Patterns of Food Consumption in Early Modern Iran", Lost Crops of Africa, Volume II: Vegetables, "Eggplant, White — Solanum ovigerum Dun. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. 12 Different Types of Eggplant 1. However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. Translated into English as 'mad-apple', 'rage-apple', or 'raging apple', this name for eggplants is attested from 1578 and the form 'mad-apple' may still be found in Southern American English. These varieties were developed by inserting a protein gene (Cry1Fa1) from a soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into the brinjal’s DNA. You can tell the difference between the two because Chinese eggplants are light purple. Some common cultivars have fruit that is egg-shaped, glossy, and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. [citation needed] Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. The Italian melanzana, through folk-etymology, was adapted to mela insana ('mad apple'): already by the thirteenth century, this name had given rise to a tradition that eggplants could cause insanity. Rinse and then quarter brinjals. The plants were engineered to resist the fruit and shoot borer, a devastating insect whose larvae bore into the stem and fruit of an eggplant. It is also called aubergine (French word) in Europe. The most widely cultivated varieties—cultivars—in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 cm (4 ⁄2–10 in) long and 6–9 cm (2 ⁄2–3 ⁄2 in) broad with a dark purple skin. A variety with a particular colour and size of the fruit fetching premium price in the market, may be totally rejected in another area. [47] Another popular dish is adobong talong, which is diced eggplant prepared with vinegar, soy sauce, and garlic as an adobo. [59] [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. The highest yield difference (+22.9%) was observed in Bogra, with the lowest yield difference in Jessore (+ 14.5%). [35] The fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces, which may enhance the flavor of eggplant dishes. [56], The color of purple skin cultivars is due to the anthocyanin nasunin. Persian bādingān was borrowed in turn into Arabic as bāḏinjān (or, with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān). A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. Solanum ovigerum Dunal Bt brinjal was first developed by the Indian seed company Mahyco in the early 2000s. Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)", https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eggplant&oldid=993466808, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Well, take a walk through a farmers market mid-summer and you'll realize that couldn't be further from the truth. Its thin skin is also edible, and so it does not have to be peeled. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Can You Eat Banana Leaves | Uses of Banana Leaves, How To Take Care of Succulent Plants | Succulent Care Tips, 8 Fastest Growing Succulents You Can Grow in India, How to Use Manure Tea for Succulents in India, 10 Best Tabletop Succulents to Grow in India. Florence Purple. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. [33] Bt brinjal was approved for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh in 2013.[34]. Selection of variety is an important consideration in the cultivation of brinjal as the local preference varies considerably from region to region and even district to district. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. Solanum trongum Poir. E arlier this month, the Narendra Modi government reportedly sanctioned biosafety field trials of two new transgenic varieties of brinjal, developed by a public sector research institute. Here are some of the best Brinjal Varieties In India, you can grow. A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within two hours. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai the fruits were variety of brinjal with West Africa 6 % carbohydrates, 1 % protein which. 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