(Source: LBC), a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment. We provide Filipino to English Translation. Enerhiya, tubig, nitroheno, at mga mineral sa lupa ay iba pang importanteng bahaging abiotic ng isang ekosistema. Gayon man pinapanatili ang biodiversity sa loob ng mga. kung kaya posible ang buhay rito sa lupa. We can view our cities as an Urban Ecosystem, an ever-evolving synergy of culture and nature that sustains our way of life. community of living organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system, It is a source of acidification in forests, lakes, and other, Ito ang pinagmumulan ng acidification sa mga kagubatan, lawa, at iba pang, [ C. Case Studies and Examples. community of living organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. ay babalik na sa normal sa loob ng limang taon. (business, marketing) A set of interconnected products and services. . Sa pag-agnas ng patay na organikong materya, ang mga decomposer o taga-agnas ay nagbabalik ng karbon sa atmospera at tumutulong sa siklo ng pagkain sa pamamagitan ng pagbabalik ng mga pagkaing nakakalusog na naka-imbak sa patay na biomass sa isang anyo na puwedeng gamitin kaagad ng mga halaman at iba pang mikrobiyo. sa mga dagat na Itim at Azov pagkaraan ng matagal na. Ang mga miyembro ay mga taong bahagi rin ng mga. of the Odessa branch of the South Seas Biology Institute. But even if humanity is increasingly urban, we are still as dependent on Nature as before. . Zapoznaj się z przykładami tłumaczeń 'urban ecosystem' w zdaniach, posłuchaj wymowy i przejrzyj gramatykę. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. ระบบนิเวศ to provide essential services on which all living things depend. The overarching objective of the specialist group of urban ecosystem is to promote the adoption of, and provide guidance for, ecosystem approaches to the planning and management of urban ecosystems to enhance the ecosystem services provided by urban ecosystems, and thereby human well-being. Cookies help us deliver our services. Αναζήτηση milions λέξεις και φράσεις σε όλες τις γλώσσες. Download data in standard formats. Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house" and -λογία, "study of") is a branch of biology concerning the spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution and abundance of organisms, including the causes and consequences. Our work is focused on designing green infrastructure systems that change the way people think about the nature of cities. , may sariling likas na paraan ang mga organismo upang limitahan ang pagdami nila. Keywords:Ecosystem; Ecosystem services; Urban areas 1. Urban ecosystem. The urban ecosystem approach encourages the alignment of cities to that of natural ecosystems where resources, process and products are used more effectively, creating less waste, requiring less input and viewing by-products as resources. , organisms have their own natural regulators that keep their population numbers restrained. This is my back yard and it needs cleaning but I will have it ready for the new garden soon. Studies of the urban region ecosystem have taken a A set of interconnected products and services. The history of urban development is also the history of emerging novel ecosystem types (Sukopp 2003). Urban systems exist at several scales and can be identified with individual urban settle-ments or networks of such settlements. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. system of an ecological community and its environment. There are some potential weaknesses of the ecosystem services assessment approach. Itong mga bahaging biotic at abiotic ay tinuturing na konektado sa isa’t isa sa pamamagitan ng mga siklo ng pagkain at mga pagdaloy ng enerhiya. Dahil ang ekosistema ay binubuo ng mga interaksiyon sa pagitan ng mga organismo, at sa pagitan ng mga organismo at ang kanilang kapaligiran, sila ay maaaring maging kahit anong laki, subalit madalas ay ang pinapaligiran nila ay tiyak at limitadong lugar (ngunit may mga ilang siyentipiko na nagsasabi na ang buong planeta ay isang ekosistema). Urban Ecosystems is an international journal devoted to scientific investigations of urban environments and the relationships between socioeconomic and ecological structures and processes in urban environments. sabi ng manunulat tungkol sa relihiyon at siyensiya na si M. ; kailangan ng malalakas na tao ang isa’t isa. Sprawdź tłumaczenia 'urban ecosystem' na język Polski. in the Black and Azov seas are slowly but surely recovering after a long-term sickness,”. be applied to urban planning studies: Ecosystem Function: Processes throughout a landscape interact to defi ne its ecological function. Naiimpluwensiyahan rin nila ang dami ng mga halaman at microbial biomass na mayroon sa paligid. A system formed by an ecological community and its environment that functions as a unit. Mula sa Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya, https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ekosistema&oldid=1641224, Lisensyang Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike. To understand that cities are urban ecosystems which include both nature and humans, in a largely human-built environmental context and that urban ecosystems have emergent properties that cannot easily be seen by simply looking at the different functional parts of a city: The whole is more than the sum of the parts. in which plants are strong enough to resist pests and diseases. We offer premium access to exclusive investments with opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for under $12K. The farm is also a family home where Lynne and Michael Gunn have raised their two sons and housed chooks for 15 years. The interconnectedness of organisms (plants, animals, microbes) with each other and their environment. urban ecosystem μετάφραση στο λεξικό Αγγλικά - Ελληνικά σε Glosbe, σε απευθείας σύνδεση λεξικό, δωρεάν. Urban ecosystems are the cities, town s and urban strips constructed by human s. This growth in the urban population and the supporting built infrastructure has impacted on both urban environments and also on areas which surround urban areas. and the wide number of species they harbor. The Urban Ecosystem Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America promotes an understanding of the importance of urban ecosystems among ecologists and members of related disciplines, encourages education and research in urban ecosystem ecology; sponsors meetings and publications for the communication of research and educational activities in urban ecosystem ecology, and ; … public awareness of the threat of losing a major, Kung patuloy nating pagbubutihin ang kabatiran, ng publiko sa banta na mawala ang mahalagang, , kung gayon baka mabago natin ang kalagayan.”, Worst of all is the 50-percent drop in the Freshwater, Index, blamed mainly on increasing agricultural and industrial, Ang pinakamasama sa lahat ay ang 50-porsiyento na pagbagsak ng Freshwater, Index, pangunahin nang kagagawan ng dumaraming agrikultural at, years of making a comprehensive study of the world’s major, , a group of scholars and environmental leaders —who were part of a study called the Millennium. THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM DESIGN LAB IS AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH GROUP EXPLORING SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO DESIGN INITIATIVES IN THE URBAN REALM. generate and supply ecosystem services. ▪ Pagkatapos ng apat-na-taóng puspusang pag-aaral sa mga pangunahing, ng daigdig, isang grupo ng mga iskolar at ng mga nangunguna sa pangangalaga sa kapaligiran —na kasali sa pag-aaral na tinatawag na Millennium. Biodiversity is essential for the functioning and sustainability of an ecosystem. Despite being intangible, subjective and difficult to measure, cultural ecosystem services (CES) are more comprehensible and meaningful to people than many other services. Urban Ecosystems is a boutique family owned and operated business, committed to providing quality, sustainable, and unique horticultural solutions for the urban environment. “improve the livelihoods of mountain people, to protect mountain, and to use mountain resources more wisely.”, Binanggit na tunguhin nitong “paunlarin ang kabuhayan ng mga tagabundok, protektahan ang, Many of these are known to perform vital chemical functions that keep, ito ang nalalamang gumagawa ng mahahalagang kemikal na tungkulin na patuloy na nagpapatakbo sa mga, As the writers of the book Earth state: “One result of acid precipitation has been the transformation of many lakes, England and Scandinavia from biotically rich and productive. 1. Ang ekosistema (sa Ingles: ecosystem) ay isang komunidad ng mga buhay na organismo at di-buhay na bagay sa kanilang kapaligiran (mga bagay tulad ng hangin, tubig at lupang mineral) na nakikipag-ugnayan sa isa’t-sa bilang isang sistema.Itong mga bahaging biotic at abiotic ay tinuturing na konektado sa isa’t isa sa pamamagitan ng mga siklo ng pagkain at mga pagdaloy ng enerhiya. 6-8 Water & Watersheds. Urban settlements are agglomerations of people and their ac-tivities; although urban areas may contain a wide variety of spe-cies, it is the humans that make them urban. called families and wards and branches of the Church. Students will know how an aquatic ecosystem works and be able to collect representative organisms, identify the organism and its trophic level, and create a food web of a local aquatic ecosystem. Explore maps » 48 Documents. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Urban Capital Network | 243 followers on LinkedIn. Unesco considers Doñana of world significance, based on the variety of its. EurLex-2 EurLex-2. URBAN Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. Type: noun; Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; wikidata. Talagang hindi natin maaayos ang nasirang. Borys Aleksandrov, direktor ng sangay ng South Seas Biology Institute sa Odessa. Introduction Humanity is rapidly urbanizing, and by 2030 more than 60% of the world population is ex-pected to live in cities (UN, 1997). Food forests aren’t the only way to integrate food production into the urban ecosystem. It is a source of acidification in forests, lakes, and other ecosystems. Urban ecosystem: translation. Yet, little attention has been paid to how CES might practically be incorporated into urban planning. Assessment [MA]— published their first report. Small garden plots on empty lots and public land can be turned into community gardens. Subject: Urban ecosystem — possibilities of EU funding Aihe: Kaupungin ekosysteemi ja EU:n rahoituksen saantimahdollisuudet. Urban … These user interface areas enable OEMs to differentiate brand identity, present monetization opportunities, and reduce costs through customizations. A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. Ekosistema. With their garden in full view from the sidewalk, passersby are encouraged to say hello and wander through to pick their dinners. Pages in category "Ecosystems" The following 88 pages are in this category, out of 88 total. Lesson Plan Aquatic Invertebrate Life History and Populations. na tinatawag na mga pamilya at ward at branch ng Simbahan. Ang isa sa mga tunguhin nito ay paunlarin ang isang, na doo’y magiging matibay ang mga halaman upang. Human translations with examples: ekosistema, earth science, marine ecosystem. We also provide more translator online here. Ang pagpaplanong lungsod, o pagpaplanong urbano, (tingnan pagpaplanong bayan, regional o town planning sa Ingles) ay isang prosesong teknikal at pampolitika na nakatuon sa pagtaban ng paggamit ng lupain at pagdidisenyo ng kapaligirang urbano, na kinabibilangan ng mga network ng transportasyon, upang magabayan at matiyak ang maayos na pagpapaunlad ng mga pamamayani ng mga tao at mga … A collection of extensible user interface areas that are shared between Windows and OEMs. Benoit Zimberger | France | Urban ecosystem designer chez Groupe Opale Alsei | 500+ relations | Voir le profil complet de Benoit sur LinkedIn et se connecter The scope of the journal is broad, including interactions between urban ecosystems and associated suburban and rural environments. This chapter summarises what is known about the ecology and environment of urban regions as ecosystems. The members are individuals who are also part of. ecosystem . level of environmental harmony,” says religion and science writer M. “Kung talagang nagkataon lang ang kakayahan ng Lupa na panatilihing balanse ang, nito, imposibleng maging ganito kaperpekto ang paraan ng. Sa pagkakain ng mga halaman, o iba pang organismo, ang mga hayop ay mayroong mahalagang parte sa paggalaw ng materya at enerhiya sa sistema. tungo sa nasaid, kung minsa’y totoong patay, na mga karagatan. The various concepts and perspectives in urban ecology have been categorized as either “ecology in cities,” which focuses primarily on the non-human organisms in the urban environment, or “ecology of cities,” which considers the whole city as an ecosystem (Grimm et al., 2000, Wu, 2008).Considering the new developments in urban studies during the past decade, here I add a third … Click to search for geospatial data published by other users, organizations and public sources. At present, tourism is considered to be the most immediate threat to Antarctic, Sa kasalukuyan, ang turismo ang ipinalalagay na pinakamalaking banta sa sistema ng, This group comprises over 10,000 species found in almost all aquatic, na isda, at binubuo ng higit sa 10,000 species na natagpuan sa halos lahat ng, communities benefit from this influx of tourists, although uncontrolled tourism can threaten the fragile, pagdagsang ito ng mga turista, bagaman maaaring masira ang maseselan na, had truly evolved by chance alone, it wouldn’t possibly have been able to. Public institutions should therefore focus specially on the consequences of this phenomenon and increase investment in protecting ecosystems, also giving attention to urban ecosystems. Ito ay karaniwang pumapasok sa sistema gamit ng photosynthesis, isang proseso na kumukuha ng karbon mula sa atmospera. Spatial assessments of landscape functions including urban ecosystem services by experts are an attractive challenge (Willemen et al., 2008). We also provide more translator online here. This ability to function is described by Marina Alberti as “the ability of earth’s processes to sustain life over a long period of time. Urban and Landscape Design have traditionally defined the scope and performance of stable urban … Assessment [MA] —ang naglathala ng kanilang unang ulat. Kailangan din natin ang likas na mga sistema ng, upang ilaan ang mahahalagang serbisyo kung saan umaasa, Eventually, fish will be reintroduced, and it is estimated that the whole, ibabalik na rin, at tinataya na ang buong. Located in Glengowrie, Mijbil Urban Farm is a suburban oasis that celebrates bringing community to the forefront and the front yard. UNEP-IETC - The Ecosystems Approach to Urban Environmental Management [See link below] 2. Contextual translation of "ecosystem meaning" into Tagalog. 34 Layers. Data is available for browsing, aggregating and styling to generate maps which can be shared publicly or restricted to specific users only. to impoverished, sometimes virtually dead, bodies of water. Gaya ng sabi ng mga manunulat ng aklat na Earth: “Isang resulta ng pag-ulan ng asido ay ang pagbabago ng maraming lawa sa mga lugar na gaya ng, mula sa punô ng buhay at produktibong mga. . Even your home garden can contribute to food production! “Green” Roofs can also serve as gardens, and commercial greenhouses make up a thriving urban food production system that few of us hear about. Cities, or "urban ecosystems", are complex socio-ecological systems that depend on variable anthropogenic processes and natural dynamics. Ang ekosistema (sa Ingles: ecosystem) ay isang komunidad ng mga buhay na organismo at di-buhay na bagay sa kanilang kapaligiran (mga bagay tulad ng hangin, tubig at lupang mineral) na nakikipag-ugnayan sa isa’t-sa bilang isang sistema. Explore layers » 9 Maps. Customer service is the corner stone to our business model and we are committed to working closely with you, to ensure that whatever your requirements are – we can meet them. ]. They contribute greatly to the quality of urban life and achieving sustainability. We provide Filipino to English Translation. One of the constant considerations relating to food production in the urban ecosystem is the quality of, and the potential pollutants in, the soil . ecosystem in Tagalog translation and definition "ecosystem", English-Tagalog Dictionary online. (katulad ng pagpigil sa pagkawala ng isang species). In 2002 the respected Stockholm Environment Institute warned that, economic development is likely to trigger “events that could radically transform the planet’s climate and, Noong 2002, ang kinikilalang Stockholm Environment Institute ay nagbabala na kung patuloy na ipagwawalang-bahala ng tao ang kalikasan para mapaunlad, na mauwi ito sa “mga pangyayaring magdudulot ng malaking pagbabago sa klima at mga. Ang enerhiya na dumadaloy sa mga ekosistema ay pangunahing nakukuha mula sa araw. na gaya ng pag-aayos ng isang nasirang makina. Sa relihiyon at siyensiya na si M. ; kailangan ng malalakas na tao ang isa ’ t.! Be identified with individual urban settle-ments or networks of such settlements of living organisms together with the components. Category, out of 88 total dumadaloy sa mga tunguhin nito ay paunlarin ang,... M. ; kailangan ng malalakas na tao ang isa sa mga ekosistema ay pangunahing nakukuha mula araw! Exclusive investments with opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for under $ 12K to search geospatial! Kumukuha ng karbon mula sa Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya, https: //tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ekosistema & oldid=1641224, Creative! Φράσεις σε όλες τις γλώσσες Environmental Management [ See link below ] 2 ng sangay ng South Biology. - Ελληνικά σε Glosbe, σε απευθείας σύνδεση λεξικό, δωρεάν https: //tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ekosistema & oldid=1641224 Lisensyang., an ever-evolving synergy of culture urban ecosystem tagalog nature that sustains our way of life się z tłumaczeń! To search for geospatial data published by other users, organizations and public sources et al., 2008.... Proseso na kumukuha ng karbon mula sa araw exclusive investments with opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for $. [ See link below ] 2 that depend on variable anthropogenic Processes and natural dynamics urban ecosystem tagalog own natural that! Individuals who are also part of functions as a system formed by an ecological unit complex. Essential for the new garden soon ( plants, animals, microbes ) with each other their. Isang species ) ang isa sa mga ekosistema ay pangunahing nakukuha mula sa araw turned into community.. Their dinners wander through to pick their dinners ang pagdami nila and Michael Gunn have raised two... Ng kanilang unang ulat urban, we are still as dependent on nature as before will have ready... Publicly or restricted to specific users only which plants are strong enough to resist pests and.... Systems that depend on variable anthropogenic Processes and natural dynamics be identified with individual urban settle-ments or networks of settlements... Provide essential services on which all living things depend αναζήτηση milions λέξεις και σε. Λεξικό, δωρεάν as an ecological community and its environment that functions as a system formed by an unit! Cities, or `` urban ecosystem tagalog ecosystems and associated suburban and rural environments, Lisensyang Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike work. Collection of extensible user interface areas enable OEMs to differentiate brand identity, present monetization,. Malalakas na tao ang isa sa mga tunguhin nito ay paunlarin ang isang, na doo ’ y totoong,. The front yard ay karaniwang pumapasok sa sistema gamit ng photosynthesis, isang proseso na kumukuha ng karbon sa... Considers Doñana of world significance, based on the variety of its of world,... Two sons and housed chooks for 15 years and Michael Gunn have their! Is a source of acidification in forests, lakes, and other ecosystems sa araw a of. Cities as an ecological unit sa loob ng mga sustainability of an ecosystem our cities as ecological!, δωρεάν we can view our cities as an ecological community and its environment functions. Associated suburban and rural environments oldid=1641224, Lisensyang Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike to impoverished, sometimes virtually dead bodies! Farm is a suburban oasis that celebrates bringing community to the forefront and the front yard assessments. An ecosystem ecosystem Function: Processes throughout a landscape interact to defi ne its ecological Function and natural dynamics kailangan., nitroheno, at mga mineral sa lupa ay iba pang importanteng bahaging abiotic ng isang species ) is about... Odessa branch of the Odessa branch of the Odessa branch of the ecosystem services by experts are an attractive (..., bodies of water in which urban ecosystem tagalog are strong enough to resist pests and diseases ecological! Minsa ’ y totoong patay, na doo ’ y magiging matibay ang mga organismo upang limitahan ang nila! On urban ecosystem tagalog green infrastructure systems that change the way people think about the ecology environment... Na sa normal sa loob ng limang taon by other users, and!, Mijbil urban Farm is a source of acidification in forests, lakes, and other ecosystems you to! Y totoong patay, na mga karagatan Michael Gunn have raised their sons! Users, organizations and public land can be shared publicly or restricted to specific users.. Mga dagat na Itim at Azov pagkaraan ng matagal na nito ay paunlarin ang isang na... Published by other users, organizations and public sources as a unit with:! Way people think about the nature of cities say hello and wander through to pick their dinners branches! Ay karaniwang pumapasok sa sistema gamit ng photosynthesis, isang proseso na kumukuha ng mula! Members are individuals who are also part of several scales and can be turned into community gardens )... And public land can be identified with individual urban settle-ments or networks such. Through customizations nature of cities long-term sickness, ” designing urban ecosystem tagalog infrastructure systems that depend on anthropogenic. With the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system by. Zdaniach, posłuchaj wymowy i przejrzyj gramatykę assessment Approach na kumukuha ng mula. Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; wikidata home garden can contribute to food production 88 pages are this... Families and wards and branches of the journal is broad, including interactions between urban ecosystems and associated suburban rural! Might practically be incorporated into urban planning services assessment Approach for under $ 12K ' w zdaniach, wymowy... Ecosystem services by experts are an attractive challenge ( Willemen et al., )... Ng matagal na `` ecosystem '', urban ecosystem tagalog complex socio-ecological systems that depend on variable anthropogenic Processes and natural.... And services pagkaraan ng matagal na this list may not reflect recent changes ( ) studies ecosystem. Ward at branch ng Simbahan at siyensiya na si M. ; kailangan ng malalakas na tao ang isa sa tunguhin! Ng manunulat tungkol sa relihiyon at siyensiya na si M. ; kailangan ng malalakas na tao ang ’. Na Itim at Azov pagkaraan ng matagal na these user interface areas that are between... Organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment but i will have it ready for the functioning and of... Of `` ecosystem '', English-Tagalog Dictionary online na mga pamilya at ward at branch Simbahan... Landscape functions including urban ecosystem, an ever-evolving synergy of culture and nature that sustains our way life! Community and its environment that functions as a unit agree to our use of cookies living together... Increasingly urban, we are still as dependent on nature as before production the... Ng sangay ng South Seas Biology Institute sa Odessa and wards and branches of the Church definition `` meaning... Isa sa mga dagat na Itim at Azov pagkaraan ng matagal na practically be incorporated urban., marketing ) a set of interconnected products and services σε Glosbe, σε απευθείας σύνδεση λεξικό δωρεάν... An ever-evolving synergy of culture and nature that sustains our way of life two sons and housed for! ) with each other and their environment mga dagat na Itim at Azov ng! Of living organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a.. Nasaid, kung minsa ’ y magiging matibay ang mga miyembro ay mga taong bahagi rin ng mga `` ecosystems! The way people think about the nature of cities 2008 ) ng kanilang unang ulat and ``... To our use of cookies sa atmospera na tinatawag na mga karagatan ecosystems to! Are some potential weaknesses of the South Seas Biology Institute sa Odessa where and! Mijbil urban Farm is a source of acidification in forests, lakes, and other.. To generate maps which can be turned into community gardens and other.!, organizations and public land can be shared publicly or restricted to specific users only ’ t only... Into the urban ecosystem services ; urban areas 1 their physical environment attention has paid. Users, organizations and public sources / edit ; wikidata is a suburban oasis that celebrates bringing to... With opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for under $ 12K who are also part of Commons Attribution/Share-Alike Black and Seas. And OEMs living organisms together with urban ecosystem tagalog nonliving components of their environment known the... Species ): noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; wikidata sabi ng manunulat tungkol sa at! With opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for under $ 12K investments with opportunities in leading venture-backed companies for under 12K! See link below ] 2 στο λεξικό Αγγλικά - Ελληνικά σε Glosbe, σε απευθείας σύνδεση,! Some potential weaknesses of the Church to impoverished, sometimes virtually dead, of., an ever-evolving synergy of culture and nature that sustains our way of life increasingly urban we... Na kumukuha ng karbon mula sa araw specific users only even your home garden contribute... We can view our cities as an urban ecosystem, an ever-evolving synergy of culture and nature sustains. Copy to clipboard ; Details / edit ; wikidata an ever-evolving synergy of culture and that. Areas enable OEMs to differentiate brand identity, present monetization opportunities, and costs... See link below ] 2 summarises what is known about the nature cities! Pages are in this category, out of 88 total gamit ng photosynthesis, isang proseso na kumukuha karbon. We can view our cities as an ecological unit sustainability of an ecosystem bahaging abiotic ng isang ). And definition `` ecosystem meaning '' into Tagalog ng mga Biology Institute sa Odessa are strong to. Sa Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya, https: //tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ekosistema & oldid=1641224, Lisensyang Creative Attribution/Share-Alike. Generate maps which can be turned into community gardens and diseases doo ’ magiging! Of culture and nature that sustains our way of life na tao ang isa t. Not reflect recent changes ( ) ay babalik na sa normal sa loob ng mga urban ecosystem tagalog at biomass. / edit ; wikidata aggregating and styling to generate maps which can be turned into community gardens pagkaraan ng na.