When priests and preachers began to organize camp meetings, their official goal was to convert the masses back to religious devotion. Johnson, Charles A. What appeared at Cane Ridge looks startlingly like the events of the Great Awakening of the 1740s, and of the revivals in medieval Europe, and of the day of Pentecost in first-century Jerusalem. What other consequences came out of a heightened sense of religion in America? The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening … The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. The United States was becoming a more culturally diverse nation in the early to mid-19th centu… The 2 nd Great Awakening was a religious revival that took place after the American Revolution between 1790 and 1840 in an effort to restore a simpler form of Christianity. [7], In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. Social reform, especially in northern states, was an important part of the Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. The temperance movement criticized the effects of the role of alcohol in public life. The Civil War, happening only 20 years after the end of the Second Great Awakening, would divide and once again unite a nation split on slavery. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The abolitionist movement and the temperance movement were influenced by … Stone. All were … Unlike Edwards, Whitefield was a British minister who moved to colonial America. Long, Kimberly Bracken. The Second Great Awakening was important for people's religious lives, but it was also important because it gave rise to a number of reform movements (such as abolitionism) that were … It weakened traditional forms of religious practices. "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". The Second Great Awakening was marked by a sudden earnestness in Christian devotion and Christlike imitation of life. [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. In fact, Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Henry Ward Beecher, would write one of the most influential books. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation". Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening.". While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play. It led to the founding of several well known colleges, seminaries and mission societies. [15], The Revival of 1800 in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". At the heart of this aspect of the Second Great Awakening was a religious commitment to social reform by elite and middle-class urban dwellers. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). Conforti, Joseph. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. Lyman Beecher was part of the reform movement of the Second Great Awakening. [23]:89 Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period:[23]:90–94, The Restoration Movement began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening. Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Husbands, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their wives' conversion, forcing women to choose between submission to God or their spouses. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. The Second Great Awakening The second great awakening focused on encouraging Christians to turn away from sinful pasts, acknowledging their unworthiness before God and accepting salvation in Christ. This ‘Second Great Awakening’ consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment.” (Outline of American History). These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. These camp meetings and tent revivals were important, as a religious fever pitch seemed to spread as the country grew. This revival expressed Arminian theology. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. Significance The Second Great Awakening marked a fundamental transition in American religious life. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. During the first half of the 1800's Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System,". Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. Created by Aditya Shelke, August 28th, 2019, Topic Number 9, The Second Great Awakening (Part of Social Reform in Antebellum America), Significance of the Second Great Awakening -. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". Race, gender, and church hierarchies were leveled on a level playing field and the real purpose of religion came to surface; and that was God. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations. The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. Generally less emotional than the Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening led to the founding of colleges and seminaries and to the organization of mission societies. [37] Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening? Second Great Awakening The Great Awakening came to an end sometime during the 1740s. [3] As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries. Exuberant revivalist meetings ignited the interest in religion. At the time, women were tasked with taking care of the children in a household, and thus the passing on of religion from one generation to the next, an immense responsibility in the eyes of preachers, was given to women. In order to fulfill their religious goals, many Christians became abolitionists, looking to rid society, their families, and the communities of slavery and its Sin. Perhaps equally important was his influence upon young men such as Barton W. Stone and William McGee. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church. Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. People also believed that by drinking less, they could limit the time they were not in full control of themselves, maximizing the time for them to do good works and live as fulfilled Christians. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of … Over one hundred years later, temperance would be placed into law, with alcohol banned due to the 18th Amendment in Prohibition. [40], Revivals and perfectionist hopes of improving individuals and society continued to increase from 1840 to 1865 across all major denominations, especially in urban areas. The Great Awakening was also a "national" occurrence. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. The Great Camp Meetings. The second great awakening contradicted the assertion of the first great awakening during which the doctrine of predestination was introduced and … The Second Great Awakening was a revival with a greater effect on society than any other revival in America and had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of … [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237. International Conference of Reformed Churches, North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ethnocultural politics in the United States, "Backcountry Religious Ways: The North British Field-Meeting Style", "Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening", Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the U.S. and Canada, Christian churches and churches of Christ, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=992554885, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. As more and more people became religiously devoted, people began to view the enslavement of certain races as evil, cruel, and unjust. The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. There was no such episode in England, further highlighting variances between Americans and their cousins across the sea. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. At the beginning of the early 19th century Christian… Revivals and public conversions became social events that continue to this day. New religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening, such as Adventism, Dispensationalism, and the Latter Day Saint movement. Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. "The Historiography of the Second Great Awakening and the Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005". The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. In order to provide good works and be good people (in order to follow Evangelist Protestantism), many Christians began denouncing slavery as Sin. The Second Great Awakening was a U.S. religious revival that began in the late eighteenth century and lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. The religions following the second Great Awakening focused on … This differed from the Calvinists' belief in predestination as outlined in the Westminster Confession of Faith, which emphasized the inability of men to save themselves and decreed that the only way to be saved was by God's electing grace. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. [12], The denominations that encouraged the revivals were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races. [38][39], Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. After first submitting to oversight by the established Methodist bishops, several AME congregations finally left to form the first independent African-American denomination in the United States in 1816. https://ageofreform2016.wordpress.com/2016/04/11/second-great-awakening In the 1790s, another religious revival, which became known as the Second Great Awakening, … Second Great Awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. The Second Great Awakening rendered the nation more united in terms of a broadly accepted Protestantism even as it led to the multiplication of different sects and denominations. The Second Great Awakening had a multitude of both controversial, yet progressive, changes in both religion and everyday life for a wide variety of American lifestyles, in the frontier and New England. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening spread over north—central North Carolina after 1791. passed laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings. Church membership doubled in the years between 1800 and 1835. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. Evangelist ideas, stating that one's good works and faith on Earth could directly affect whether or not they received salvation, helped bring about the success of the awakening. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. Unlike before and in predestination, people now believed their free will would lead them to Heaven, and began to lead much more religious lives in an attempt to be saved. Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. T… As the Second Great Awakening progressed, Church leaders searched for more ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism. [29] His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[30]. In northern New England, social activism took precedence; in western New York, the movement encouraged the growth of new denominations. In what ways did renewed religious enthusiasm mesh with the cultural and political optimism of the Jeffersonian era? They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. It pushed the idea of individual salvation and free will over predestination. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Meyer, Neil. As religion became more and more prevalent in women's lives, women also grew more influential in religion. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. [14] Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Th… It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. What was the Second Great Awakening?The Second Great Awakening was prompted by falling interest in religion when people were excited about the innovations of the Industrial Revolution and the rapid expansion of U.S. territories, particularly in the west. [6] The movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. [45], Historians stress the common understanding among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. A second important figure during the Great Awakening was George Whitefield. The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. The causes of the Second Great Awakening included the social disruptions of the Market Revolution, the democratization of American culture, and a … [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. The congregations of these denomination were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. It helped propel numerous reform movements, most notably involving temperance and abolition, even as it attempted to return Christianity to its primitive roots. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. It due to these social and societal pressures that temperance began to take hold. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. In 1800, out of African-American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. The second Great Awakening is significant because it changed the character of American religion. The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. [24]:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. Motivated by a concept of religious benevolence that encouraged them to try and improve the condition of spiritually impoverished people, these religious reformers created a national network of religious institutions in the decade after 1815. As preachers looked for more souls to convert back to the Protestant faith, they found their needs in both women and people of color. Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. Several new groups formed to promote and strengthen … Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. Early religious groups believed humans were dark and evil, and only the grace of God could save them. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. The camp-meetings featured zealous preachers who applied Christian teaching to the resolution of the social problems of the day. The Second Great Awakening By the end of the 18th century, many educated Americans no longer professed traditional Christian beliefs. [32] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. There was no such episode in England, … The Civil War, happening only 20 years after the end of the Second Great Awakening, would divide and once again unite a nation split on slavery. [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. [32], Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860". [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840". This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. The second great awakening revived the emotional side of religion and was a reaction against rationalism and the enlightenment. This version of Christian philosophy became widely accepted during this time because it gave people more control over their spiritual lives. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. 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